Is it a Fictional Framing? - Effects of Population Explosion on Economic Resources
Written by - Devika Kulkarni
Population is one of the integral parts of global aspect which adheres to deal with the dramatic impact of human ability. It is always said that, “Anything in excess is bad”. Thus going on these terms of word, it has turned out to be a massive peril to the human existence. Population explosion is indeed turning out to be a major threat to be the mankind because of its growing tendrils. The focus of amalgamation is fostered thoroughly but the professing of its prudence is the matter of worry as well. The rising population with its widening effects isn’t the subject which can be farsighted. Its elaboration need to be triggered in order to bencher the economic, social and environmental problems. Embarking and acting on population explosion had seen its roots from medieval period owing to the classical way of thought. A very well known Economist and thinker Malthus laid forward the theory explaining the widen discussion over the featured tale.
The Malthusian Theory of Population is a theory of exponential population growth and arithmetic food supply growth. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleric and scholar, published this theory in his 1798 writings, An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Malthus believed that through preventative checks and positive checks, the population would be controlled to balance the food supply with the population level. These checks would lead to the Malthusian catastrophe. Thomas Malthus theorized that populations grew in geometric progression. A geometric progression is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed, non-zero number called the common ratio. For example, in the sequence 2, 10, 50, 250, 1250, the common ratio is 5. Additionally, he stated that food production increases in arithmetic progression. An arithmetic progression is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant. For example, in series 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, the common difference of 3.
From this, we can conclude that populations will grow faster than the supply of food. This exponential population growth will lead to a shortage of food. Malthus then argued that because there will be a higher population than the availability of food, many people will die from the shortage of food. He theorized that this correction would take place in the form of Positive Checks (or Natural Checks) and Preventative Checks. These checks would lead to the Malthusian catastrophe, which would bring the population level back to a ‘sustainable level.’
A. Positive Checks or Natural Checks
He believed that natural forces would correct the imbalance between food supply and population growth in the form of natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes and human-made actions such as wars and famines.
B. Preventative Checks
To correct the imbalance, Malthus also suggested using preventative measures to control the growth of the population. These measures include family planning, late marriages, and celibacy.
These envisaged Checks helps to nullify the effect of population on limited natural resources.
Population growth is positive when it contributes by being the medium of uplifter. Censoring its effects is necessary –
1. Reduction in rate of Capital formation: - In underdeveloped countries, the composition of population is determined to increase capital formation. Due to higher birth rate and low expectation of life in these countries, the percentage of dependents is very high. Nearly 40 to 50 per cent of the population is in the non-productive age group which simply consumes and does not produce anything. Increasing Population will pose a thriving demand for the availability which may reduce the productivity of labour because of deepened difference. Reduced in income will lead to reduced savings and less rate of liquidation in market.
2. Growing Population builds up higher level of Investment: - Appreciating levels of population increases the demographic investment with an unable habit of saving. Reduction in Per capita Income also leads to the less absorbent investments to fetch the need of population. These factors propose the stagnation of economy.
3. Rapid Population Growth creates Food Problem: - Increased population means more mouths to feed which, in turn, creates pressure upon available stock of food. Food scarcity effects economic development in two respects. Firstly, inadequate supply of food leads to undernourishment of the people which lowers their productivity. It further reduces the production capacity of the workers, Secondly; the deficiency of food compels to import food grains which place as unnecessarily strain on their foreign exchange resources
4. Labour Efficiency reduces: - Rapid increase is prudent for productive employment but when looked upon as Labour force, the major population turns out to be the larger age group. This will thereby decrease per labour productivity with less supply rate and thus would be inefficient to produce or nourish the growing population. This will eventually bother the decision regarding food scarcity.
5. Self-Dependent: - As labour productivity worsens the reliance for other foreign countries aid becomes inevitable. It will cause an obstacle towards the motive of Atmanirbhar.
6. It would impotent the everlasting effects on environment causing a pressure towards hybrid, unhealthy and unhygienic living life styles with the annotation of deprived Standard of Living.
7. Lowered Employment Opportunities: - Growth in Population will reduce the employment opportunities as one survives over other and disguised unemployment may prevail.
In short Population holds for the major sphere of the octane which is necessary for its regulation. Enhancing broader perspective amongst citizen entrust for the smarter way of organization. Eminent provocation of policy emerges the absolute and collaborative living standards. Thus it is necessary for the Administrators to bring in various initiatives persuading engaging emancipation. It is aptly said that, “Real problem is not population explosion rather what the population is doing.”
Keywords: - Population Explosion, appreciating, administrators, living standards